By: Kristina Wilson
On Friday, November 18, 2016, the Fourth Circuit issued a published opinion in the civil case RB&F Coal, Inc. v. Mullins. The Fourth Circuit affirmed the U.S. Department of Labor’s Benefits Review Board’s finding that a coal miner, Turl Mullins, and his wife, Deloris Mullins, were entitled to employment and survivors’ benefits under 30 USC § 901 et seq (Black Lung Benefits Act). While the parties agreed that the Mullinses should be compensated, on appeal, the parties disputed whether RB&F Coal, Inc. should be responsible for paying the benefits.
The Statutory Scheme
The Fourth Circuit’s analysis was governed by the Black Lung Benefits Act (“BLBA”) and Virginia’s Guaranty Act. Under the BLBA, a mine operator that employs a miner who becomes disabled by pneumoconiosis is responsible for compensating the miner. 30 USC §§ 901(a), 922(a), 932(b), 932(c). Where multiple coal companies employ a miner, the most recent company to employ the miner is liable for the payments, as long as the company qualifies as a “potentially liable operator.” 20 C.F.R. § 725.495(a)(1). To be a “potentially liable operator,” the coal company and/or its insurer must be financially capable of assuming liability. Id. § 725.494(e).
Virginia’s legislature established the Virginia Property and Casualty Insurance Guaranty Association (VPCIGA), a state chartered non-profit association that provides payment of “covered claims” resulting from insolvent insurers. Va. Code Ann. § 38.2-1603. Virginia state laws require all insurance companies conducting business in Virginia to join the VPCIGA. Id. §§ 38.2-1604. The VPCIGA is only responsible for the claims of an insolvent insurer that are “covered claims,” as defined in the Guaranty Act. Id. § 38.2-1606(A)(1). “Covered claims” include “. . . any claim filed with the VPCIGA after the final date set by the court for the filing of claims against the liquidator or receiver of an insolvent insurer.” Id. § 38.2-1606(A)(1)(b).
Facts and Procedural History
Between 1985 and 1988, Turl Mullins worked for several different coal companies, including RB&F Coal, Inc. (“RB&F”) and Wilder Coal (“Wilder”). Mullins developed pneumoconiosis in 2009 and filed a Black Lung Benefits Act (“BLBA”) claim in that same year. At the time of filing, Mullins’s most recent employer, Wilder, was out of business and its insurer declared insolvent. Therefore, the Department of Labor district director imposed liability on RB&F for payments to the Mullinses. RB&F challenged the finding and transferred the case to an Administrative Law Judge.
The Administrative Law Judge affirmed the Department of Labor’s finding because RB&F failed to prove that Wilder Coal was capable of financially assuming the liability. RB&F appealed the Administrative Law Judge’s finding with the Department of Labor’s Benefits Review Board, but the Benefits Review Board affirmed. This appeal followed.
Wilder Is Not a “Responsible Operator” under the BLBA
On appeal, RB&F first argued that Wilder qualified as a “responsible operator” because Wilder’s claims are still “otherwise guaranteed,” under Virginia’s Guaranty Act. However, Virginia’s Guaranty Act excluded claims filed after the final date set by a court for claims against an insolvent insurer. Va. Code Ann. § 38.2-1606(A)(1)(b). The final date set by a court for claims against Wilder’s insurer was August 26, 1992. Mullins did not file his claim until 2009. Therefore, Mullins’ claim was not “otherwise guaranteed.”
The BLBA Does Not Preempt the Guaranty Act
RB&F next argued that the BLBA preempted the Guaranty Act’s limitation of liability for black lung claims. In so arguing, RB&F assumed that the VPCIGA was an insurer under the BLBA. The Department of Labor regulations implementing the BLBA provide that an insurer is any fund, including a State fund, that is authorized under a state’s workers’ compensation laws to insure employers’ liability. 20 C.F.R. § 725.101(a)(18). However, Virginia’s workers’ compensation laws prevented the VPCIGA from covering Wilder’s insurer’s claims past a certain date. In fact, the Guaranty Act precluded the VPCIGA from providing full coverage of all the claims of an insolvent insurer. Thus, the VPCIGA is not an insurer under the BLBA, and as such, the BLBA does not preempt the Guaranty Act.
Therefore, because RB&F established neither that Wilder was a “responsible operator” nor that the BLBA preempted the Guaranty Act, the Fourth Circuit affirmed the Benefits Review Board’s imposition of liability on RB&F.