By: Kristina Wilson

Earlier today, November 4, 2016, the Fourth Circuit issued a published opinion in the civil case Wells Fargo Equipment Finance v. Asterbadi. The Fourth Circuit affirmed the District Court’s decision in favor of Wells Fargo. On appeal, the parties disputed whether the statute of limitations on a debt collection judgment against Asterbadi had restarted upon registration in a new district.

Facts and Procedural History

On October 4, 1993, the District Court of Virginia entered a debt collection judgment against Asterbadi for over 2 million dollars. Under Virginia law, the judgment was enforceable for twenty years. Asterbadi made several payments on the judgment, but it remained mostly unsatisfied. The creditor, CIT/Equipment Financing Inc. (“CIT”), registered the debt in Maryland in 2003, pursuant to 28 U.S.C. § 1963. At the time of registration, Asterbadi still owed over 1.5 million dollars on the debt, most of which was interest. After unsuccessful attempts to enforce the judgment against some of Asterbadi’s stocks in Maryland, CIT took no further action to enforce the judgment.

In June of 2007, CIT sold and assigned the judgment to Wells Fargo. Starting in April of 2015, Wells Fargo attempted to enforce the judgment. It filed a notice of assignment and a copy of the assignment in the Circuit Court of Montgomery County, as well as a notice of assignment in the District Court of Maryland. In May of 2015, Asterbadi sought a protective order, stating that Wells Fargo was attempting to enforce a Virginia judgment that was outside Virginia’s and Maryland’s statutes of limitations. In August of 2015, Wells Fargo filed a renewal of its registered judgment in the district court.

The district court ultimately held that the statute of the limitation on the judgment began when the judgment was registered with the district court , which was in August of 2003. Thus, the District Court denied Asterbadi’s motion for a protected order because the judgment was still enforceable against him.

Asterbadi Can Appeal the Protective Order

The Fourth Circuit considered two jurisdictional issues on appeal. First, Wells Fargo argued that Asterbadi’s appeal was limited to an injunction entered against him by CIT in September of 2015. Second, Asterbadi contended that Wells Fargo lacked standing to enforce the judgment.

In September of 2015, the District Court entered an injunction against Asterbadi, and in October of 2015, the District Court denied Asterbadi’s motion for a protective order. Asterbadi appealed the entry of the injunction, but Wells Fargo argued that Asterbadi should have appealed the denial of the protective order instead. However, in its September of 2015 order, the District Court explicitly rejected Asterbadi’s claims that Wells Fargo did not have standing and that the statute of limitations had run on the judgment. The Fourth Circuit stated that these claims were “ necessary conditions precedent” to a grant of injunctive relief. Thus, the Fourth Circuit concluded that Asterbadi could challenge the District Court’s rulings on those two claims.

Wells Fargo Does Have Standing

Asterbadi argued that Wells Fargo lacked standing because it did not comply with Maryland Rule 2-624. Under Maryland Rule 2-624, an assignee may enforce a judgment in its own name when it files the assignment in the court where the judgment was entered. Asterbadi contended that Wells Fargo had only submitted a notice of assignment and not the actual copy of assignment to the District Court. However, Asterbadi himself provided the District Court with a copy of the assignment in an earlier proceeding. Therefore, the District Court had both the notice and the copy of the assignment. The District Court consequently held that Wells Fargo had satisfied Maryland Rule 6-264, and the Fourth Circuit affirmed.

The Judgment’s Statute of Limitations Restarted under Maryland Law

Asterbadi argued that the statute of limitations on the judgment had expired, while Wells Fargo contended that registering the judgment in Maryland constituted a “new judgment” and that the statute of limitations therefore started tolling upon its registration in Maryland.

The Fourth Circuit evaluated both arguments under 28 U.S.C. § 1963. Under this section, debt collection judgments from one district are enforceable in a different jurisdiction if they are registered by filing a certified copy of the judgment in the other jurisdiction’s District Court. The statute’s intent was to minimize the inefficiency and awkwardness of requiring creditors to obtain new judgments against a debtor in order to enforce a judgment in a different jurisdiction. In interpreting § 1963 in this manner, the Fourth Circuit rejected Asterbadi’s contention that the registration was simply a “ministerial act” and a procedural mechanism to enforce the Virginia judgment. The Fourth Circuit reasoned that if registration was just a “ministerial act,” § 1963 would not need to explicitly provide that registered judgments are equally as enforceable as other judgments entered in the registration court.

Because the statute allowed creditors to obtain “new judgments,” without litigation, the Fourth Circuit treated Wells Fargo’s judgment as a “new judgment” upon its registration in Maryland. The Fourth Circuit applied Maryland law and held that debt collection judgments are enforceable for twelve years, pursuant to Maryland Rule 2-625. Accordingly, the judgment against Asterbadi would only have been enforceable until August 27, 2015. However, Wells Fargo filed for renewal on August 26, 2015. Thus, the Fourth Circuit held that Wells Fargo’s judgment will remain enforceable for twelve more years.

Disposition

Therefore, the Fourth Circuit affirmed the District Court’s denial of Asterbadi’s motion for a protective order.

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